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Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority or banks; managing transactions and the issuing of bitcoins is carried out collectively by the network. Although other cryptocurrencies have come before, Bitcoin is the first decentralized cryptocurrency — Its reputation has spawned copies and evolution in the space.

With the largest variety of markets and the biggest value — having reached a peak of 18 billion USD — Bitcoin is here to stay. As with any new invention, there can be improvements or flaws in the initial model however the community and a team of dedicated developers are pushing to overcome any obstacle they come across. It is also the most traded cryptocurrency and one of the main entry points for all the other cryptocurrencies. The price is as unstable as always and it can go up or down by 10%-20% in a single day.

Bitcoin is an SHA-256 POW coin with 21,000,000 total minable coins. The block time is 10 minutes. See below for a full range of Bitcoin markets where you can trade US Dollars for Bitcoin, crypto to Bitcoin and many other fiat currencies too.

Learn about the history of Bitcoin here and check out 50 crazy-fun facts about Bitcoin here!

Mobile payments made easy Bitcoin on mobiles allows you to pay with a simple two step scan-and-pay. No need to sign up, swipe your card, type a PIN, or sign anything. All you need to receive Bitcoin payments is to display the QR code in your Bitcoin wallet app and let your friend scan your mobile, or touch the two phones together (using NFC radio technology).

Security and control over your money Bitcoin transactions are secured by military grade cryptography. Nobody can charge you money or make a payment on your behalf. So long as you take the required steps to protect your wallet, Bitcoin can give you control over your money and a strong level of protection against many types of fraud.

Works everywhere, anytime Just like with email, you don’t need to ask your family to use the same software or the same service providers. Just let them stick to their own favorites. No problem there; they are all compatible as they use the same open technology. The Bitcoin network never sleeps, even on holidays!

Fast international payments Sending bitcoins across borders is as easy as sending them across the street. There are no banks to make you wait three business days, no extra fees for making an international transfer, and no special limitations on the minimum or maximum amount you can send.

Choose your own fees There is no fee to receive bitcoins, and many wallets let you control how large a fee to pay when spending. Most wallets have reasonable default fees, and higher fees can encourage faster confirmation of your transactions. Fees are unrelated to the amount transferred, so it’s possible to send 100,000 bitcoins for the same fee it costs to send 1 bitcoin.

Protect your identity With Bitcoin, there is no credit card number that some malicious actor can collect in order to impersonate you. In fact, it is even possible to send a payment without revealing your identity, almost just like with physical money. You should however take note that some effort can be required to protect your privacy.

Balances — block chain The block chain is a shared public ledger on which the entire Bitcoin network relies. All confirmed transactions are included in the block chain. This way, Bitcoin wallets can calculate their spendable balance and new transactions can be verified to be spending bitcoins that are actually owned by the spender. The integrity and the chronological order of the block chain are enforced with cryptography.

Transactions — private keys A transaction is a transfer of value between Bitcoin wallets that gets included in the block chain. Bitcoin wallets keep a secret piece of data called a private key or seed, which is used to sign transactions, providing a mathematical proof that they have come from the owner of the wallet. The signature also prevents the transaction from being altered by anybody once it has been issued. All transactions are broadcast between users and usually begin to be confirmed by the network in the following 10 minutes, through a process called mining.

Processing — mining Mining is a distributed consensus system that is used to confirm waiting transactions by including them in the block chain. It enforces a chronological order in the block chain, protects the neutrality of the network, and allows different computers to agree on the state of the system. To be confirmed, transactions must be packed in a block that fits very strict cryptographic rules that will be verified by the network. These rules prevent previous blocks from being modified because doing so would invalidate all following blocks. Mining also creates the equivalent of a competitive lottery that prevents any individual from easily adding new blocks consecutively in the block chain. This way, no individuals can control what is included in the block chain or replace parts of the block chain to roll back their own spends.

Грамматика. Ключи к упражнениям по 6-му изданию.

Пособие содержит практические упражнения различной степени сложности по основным разделам школьного курса английского языка.

Ключи к упражнениям 300 — 350. Шестое издание

Упражнение 300

1. shall be asked. 2. was always spoken. 3. was expected. 4. would be opened. 5. is (being) sold. 6. were looked, was found. 7. were made. 8. had been received. 9. have just been introduced. 10. will be taken, will be brought.

Упражнение 301

1. This book was borrowed from the library only yesterday. 2. These three students were asked two days ago. 3. Were you examined in the morning? 4. This mouse was caught at night. 5. Very beautiful bags are made at our factory. 6. Letters can be sent there only in summer, but telegrams all the year round. 7. My friend is sent abroad every year. 8. She was sent to hospital two days ago. 9. Yesterday we were sent to the laboratory. 10. This composition was written last week. 11. The telegram was sent late at night, and he will receive it only in the morning. 12. This article must be read by the whole group. 13. This exercise may be written in pencil. 14. All your compositions will be returned next week. 15. This letter can be written on a piece of paper.

Упражнение 302

1. We were shown a very strange picture. 2. You are being looked for. Go home. 3. All of you will be gathered in the hall and told about all the changes in the school curriculum. 4. Why is he always laughed at? 5. All of us were given tickets to the exhibition. 6. The lectures of this famous professor are always listened to with great attention. 7. Am I being waited for? 8. They were asked three difficult questions. 9. The headmaster has already been sent for. Please wait a little. 10. Everybody was invited to a big hall. 11. These letters have been looked through. They can be sent. 12. At the station they were met by the guide and taken to the hotel. 13. These magazines must be returned to the library next week. 14. At our lessons much attention is paid to pronunciation. 15. Ivanov was told to explain why he missed classes. 16. Shall I be invited to your party? 17. The children were left alone at home.

Упражнение 303

1. This doctor is often sent for. 2. He is always met by his friends at the railway station. 3. Are you given books for reading at school? 4. The prisoners were brought into a big hall. 5. What exercises were done in class? 6. Who was this letter written by? 7. Many schools will be built next year. 8. He is laughed at by everybody. 9. Will this work be finished next week? 10. When were these apple trees planted? 11. He was often remembered and spoken about at the institute. 12. Shall we be met at the station? 13. The answer will be sent in a few days. 14. When were you asked? 15. This translation will be finished in a few days. 16. Will this book be returned in time? 17. Не will be met by his father at the railway station. 18. These pictures were painted in the 16th century. 19. Are these books used for work? 20. In Italy we shall be shown many places of interest. 21. This man was followed by a great crowd. 22. When the new story was being read, somebody knocked at the door. 23. We have already been invited to the party. 24. When mother came, dinner had already been cooked.

Упражнение 304

1. The letters were left on the table. 2. The boy was not allowed to bathe in the river. 3. After dinner the dishes were washed. 4. The letter was written yesterday. 5. This article was written by an English journalist. 6. This poem must be learnt by all the students of our group. 7. We were shown many beautiful things. 8. The poem was learnt by heart. 9. They will be taught English. 10. When the apple was eaten (had been eaten), the girl took the doll and went into the room. 11. When will your book be written? 12. All these books have been borrowed from the library. 13. The dictation was handed in to the teacher after the bell rang. 14. I thought that bread and butter would be bought by my sister. 15. In spring this field will be covered with green grass and flowers. 16. The homework was prepared, the books and exercise books were put into the bag. 17. The work was done very well. 18. The article must be translated by five o’clock. 19. The translation will be finished in time. 20. When I came home, soup had already been cooked. 21. The article was translated without mistakes. 22. The book was put into the bookcase.

Упражнение 305

1. Where is your brother now? — He has been sent to France. 2. You have just been spoken about. 3. At home she was laughed at. 4. «I have just been ordered to bring in the prisoners,» said the soldier. 5. Who was this letter written by?. 6. These flowers have just been picked. 7. Were you asked to come a little earlier yesterday? 8. Next year his play will be staged at this theatre. 9. This professor is always sent for in difficult situations. 10. St. Paul’s Cathedral was built by the architect Wren. 11. When was the letter written? 12. Where have the books been put? 13. The doctor will be sent for tomorrow. 14. Many houses are built in St. Petersburg. 15. Books by English and American writers are published all over the world. 16. By the time he came, the letter had already been received. 17. Our house is being repaired now. 18. Nick is just being asked. 19. Have the books been brought from the library? 20. This cinema had been built before we came here. 21. Robert Burns’poems are known in many countries of the world. 22. When Charles Dickens was a little boy, his father was put into a debtors’prison. 23. This opera was written a hundred years ago. 24. This novel has already been translated into five languages. 25. Dinner was being cooked when I came home.

Упражнение 306

1. I was introduced to her father yesterday. 2. When I return home, all my suitcases will be packed (will have been packed). 3. What textbook is referred to in your report? 4. Had this composition been written before you made your report? 5. She was listened to very inattentively and everything she said was soon forgotten. 6. This episode is much spoken about in our house. 7. We were taken into the hall and offered good seats. 8. Has the medicine been sent for? — Yes, it is being looked for. 9. He was brought up by his sister. 10. Don’t worry, he will be helped with his work. 11. Three new schools are being built in our district. 12. This bridge is still being built. It was being built when I saw it for the first time. 13. When I began helping them, they had already been translating the article for two hours, but it had not yet been translated. 14. When I come home, dinner will still be cooked. 15. This story was discussed at the literature lesson. 16. Don’t speak until you are spoken to. 17. Agatha Christie’s works have been translated to more than 100 languages.

Согласование времен. Косвенная речь

Упражнение 307

1. Мы не знали, куда ходят наши друзья каждый вечер. 2. Мы не знали, куда ушли наши друзья. 3. Она сказала, что ее лучший друг — врач. 4. Она сказала, что ее лучший друг был врачом. 5. Я не знал, что вы работаете в Эрмитаже. 6. Я не знал, что вы работали в Эрмитаже. 7. Я знал, что вы больны. 8. Я знал, что вы были больны. 9. Мы выяснили, что она выходит из дому в восемь часов каждое утро. 10. Мы выяснили, что в то утро она вышла из дому в восемь часов. 11. Когда он узнал, что его сын всегда получает отличные оценки по всем предметам в школе, он был очень доволен. 12. Когда он узнал, что его сын получил отличную оценку в школе, он был очень доволен.

Упражнение 308

1. My uncle said he had just come back from the Caucasus. 2. He said he had spent a fortnight in the Caucasus. 3. He said it had done him a lot of good. 4. He said he felt better now. 5. He said his wife and he had spent most of their time on the beach. 6. He said they had done a lot of sightseeing. 7. He said he had a good camera. 8. He said he had taken many photographs while travelling in the Caucasus. 9. He said he would come to see us next Sunday. 10. He said he would bring and show us the photographs he had taken during his stay in the Caucasus.

Упражнение 309

1. Mike said he was sure Ann and Kate would be excellent guides. 2. He said they had made good progress in English. 3. Oleg said that in a day or two several English students would come to pay a visit to their school and he would probably have to act as an interpreter. 4. Ann said she had just met Boris in the street. 5. She said Boris had told her a lot of interesting things about his travels in the south. 6. Nick said he was going to the hotel to see his friends who had just arrived in St. Petersburg from the United States of America. 7. He said they had not been here for a long time. 8. He said they had been friends at school. 9. He said he would take them to the theatre on Sunday. 10. They said they would write me a letter when they returned home.

Упражнение 310

1. was playing. 2. would come. 3. had posted. 4. will be, will not change. 5. was. 6. has bought. 7. had seen. 8. was staying. 9. had lost. 10. studied. 11. should finish. 12. worked. 13. was.

Упражнение 311

1. were waiting. 2. had already wound. 3. would not be, went. 4. knows. 5. had not come. 6. remembered. 7. would arrest. 8. did not want. 9. will send. 10. would leave. 11. has already found. 12. was striking. 13. could, was. 14. had ever travelled. 15. was running. 16. had just gone, would be.

Упражнение 312

1. I was afraid that you would fall and break your leg. 2. I knew that my friend had never been to Washington. 3. I was told that she never drank milk. 4. We were told that he was a very talented singer. 5. We knew that they lived a happy life. 6. She thought that the children were playing in the yard. 7. She hoped that her friend would come to see her. 8. He thought that father had repaired his bicycle. 9. I supposed that she knew English very well. 10. We were sure that our sportsmen would win the game. 11. I found out that he did not know German at all. 12. She was glad that she had made no mistakes in her dictation. 13. I knew that he worked at his English hard. 14. I was told that she danced better than anybody else. 15. I learnt that my cousin had received a very interesting offer from his firm. 16. My aunt wrote in her letter that she would come to stay with us. 17. We heard that he was painting a new picture. 18. We were sure that his new picture would be a masterpiece.

Упражнение 313

1. I knew that Ann worked at a plant, that she had a husband and two children, that her family was very friendly and she was happy. 2. He told me yesterday that he had studied at the university before. 3. Last week we decided that next year we should all go to the Crimea. 4. My sister said that she wanted to come to our place herself. 5. I knew that she was very busy. 6. Nobody knew that you were waiting here. Let’s go into the house. 7. The guide warned us that in this part of the town the traffic was rather heavy. 8. The secretary did not notice that the headmaster was speaking with somebody. 9. We all knew that her family was in St. Petersburg again. 10. Lena said that she was giving us this picture. 11. She said that her colleagues always gave her very good advice. 12. He said that he liked that play. 13. Last year they thought that they would never read English well, but yesterday they saw that they read texts rather well. 14. He told me yesterday that his father was a professor and lived in Moscow.

Упражнение 314

1. I was afraid that I should lose my way in the forest. 2. She knew that we had never seen her picture. 3. The scientist was sure that he would find the solution of the problem. 4. I knew that you had come to St. Petersburg and supposed that you would visit me. 5. We did not think that he would be so angry. 6. We learnt yesterday that she was ill. 7. He thought that she would not come to school. 8. I knew that my sister was studying French and thought that she would go to Paris. 9. I was told that you had rung me up. 10. I thought that you were in Moscow. 11. I did not know that you had already returned to St. Petersburg. 12. We hoped that we should go to London. 13. The teacher said that our friends had sent a letter from London. 14. She said that her friend had invited her to the theatre. 15. We were afraid that we should not buy (be able to buy) a ticket to the theatre. 16. We saw that the children were playing in the sand. 17. She said that she would not bathe any more because the water was cold. 18. My cousin said that she liked opera and would be glad to go to the theatre with us, although she had already listened to La Traviata twice.

Упражнение 315

1. Everybody was sure that Boris would pass his examinations well. 2. He said that Lev (Leo) Tolstoy was his favourite writer. 3. I knew that you lived in Moscow, but I did not know your address. 4. He said that he would give up smoking. 5. Everybody knew that she would go to Rome. 6. We are sorry, we did not think that you were waiting for us. 7. I did not know that you liked football, too. 8. I was sure that he would be an outstanding actor. 9. I was afraid that you would not follow my advice. 10. I did not know that you would work in the reading room. 11. I thought that he would wait for me. 12. He was afraid that it would be difficult for him to make a report. 13. He told us that when he had entered the room, his friend was already sitting on the sofa. He was reading a newspaper. 14. We hoped that she would come soon. 15. He said that he did not know when the conference would begin. 16. I was sure that if we hurried, we should not miss the train. 17. He asked me what I should do in the evening. I answered that I did not know if I should be free in the evening, but told him that if I was free, I should ring him up about eight o’clock.

Упражнение 316

1. My friend asked me to explain to him how to solve that problem. 2. The doctor told Nick to open his mouth and show him his tongue. 3. The man told Kate not to be afraid of his dog. 4. The librarian told the boy to take that book and read it. 5. The doctor told Pete not to go for a walk that day. 6. Nick’s mother told him not to eat too much ice cream. 7. The teacher told us to go home. 8. My mother asked me to buy some meat in the shop. 9. My mother told me to sit down at the table and do my homework. 10. Granny told Helen not to forget to clean her teeth. 11. The doctor told Mary not to sit up late.

Упражнение 317

1. The teacher told me to hand that note to my parents. 2. Oleg told his sister to put the letter into an envelope and give it to Kate. 3. Robert asked Henry to help him with that work. 4. He asked the waitress to bring him some fish soup. 5. She told me not to worry over such a small thing. 6. Mary asked her friend not to mention it to anybody. 7. Jane asked Alice to promise to come and see her. 8. He told us to come there the next day. 9. I asked Mike to send me a telegram as soon as he arrived. 10. Father told me not to stay there long. 11. Peter told them not to leave the room until he came back. 12. He told the porter to take his luggage to Room 145. 13. He asked me to ring him up the next day. 14. She asked the waiter to bring her a cup of black coffee. 15. Mother told us not to be late for dinner. 16. Jane asked us to tell her all we knew about it. 17. She asked Nick not to say anything about it to his sister.

Упражнение 318

1. Oleg said that his room was on the second floor. 2. He said that he was sure she would ring him up when she was back in St. Petersburg. 3. Misha said that he had seen them at his parents’ house the year before. 4. He said that he had not seen his cousin that day. 5. She said that she did not go to that shop very often. 6. Tom said that he had already had breakfast and so he was not hungry. 7. He said that he had just received a letter from his uncle. 8. He told me that he was going to the theatre that night. 9. Mike said that he had spoken to Mr. Brown that morning. 10. He told her that he would do it that day if he had time. 11. I told them that I could give them my uncle’s address.

Упражнение 319

1. The woman told her son that she was glad she was there. 2. Mike said that they had bought those books that day. 3. She told me that now she could read my translation. 4. The woman said that that man had spoken to her on the road. 5. My classmate told me that he could not explain that rule to me. 6. The teacher told the class that they would discuss that subject the next day. 7. Our teacher said that Thackeray’s novels were very interesting. 8. She said that we should read that book in the 9th form. 9. Nellie said that she had read «Jane Eyre» the year before. 10. Alec said that his friend lived in Moscow. 11. The teacher told me that I had not done my work well. 12. The poor man told the rich man that his horse was wild and that it could kill the rich man’s horse. 13. The rich man told the judge that the poor man’s horse had killed his horse.

Упражнение 320

1. Masha said that she usually spent her holidays in the south. 2. She said that she had spent her holidays in the Crimea the year before. 3. Boris said that he went to the south every year. 4. He said that he was going to a health resort the next day. 5. Ann told us that they hadn’t yet come. 6. She told us that they had arrived in St. Petersburg the day before. 7. I said that I had been in London the year before and added that my friends in London sometimes invited me to spend my holidays with them. 8. Nick said that he had never been to London and added that he thought he would go there the following year. 9. He said that he would not stay with his friends too long. 10. Не told me that they were staying at the Europe Hotel. 11. He said that they were leaving the following Monday. 12. The clerk told them that they could leave the key with the maid upstairs.

Упражнение 321

1. The mother told the doctor that the children were in the nursery. 2. The boy told his mother that he had no time for lunch that day. 3. The woman told me that I spoke English very well. 4. My brother told me that he was going to become a doctor. 5. My uncle told us that he bought several newspapers every day. 6. The teacher told the pupils that the following year they would have six hours of English a week. 7. He told me that he wanted to see me that day. 8. She said that she was free that night. 9. Mother told me that she felt bad that day. 10. The pupil told the teacher that he could do his homework after dinner. 11. The teacher told Jack that she knew that he worked hard and added that he was a good boy. 12. The old man told the girl that she could sing perfectly and added that he thought that she would be a famous singer. 13. My sister told me that I looked very well, much better than I had looked the day before. She added that she thought I had recovered after my illness. 14. My guest told me that I was an excellent cook and added that everything was very tasty. 15. The student said that he could not answer that question because he did not understand it.

Упражнение 322

1. My friend told me that he would come as soon as he was ready. 2. My sister said that we should know-that she had gone to the concert if she was not at home by eight. 3. My girlfriend said that she would come to the Philharmonic with me if I got tickets. 4. She told us that five years before there had been no people living there at all. 5. Fred said that he would go skiing on Sunday if he had time. 6. He said that they had finished building that house only the week before. 7. Mary said that it would be very pleasant when Tom came home. 8. My friend said that he would do it at once if I liked. 9. She said that her brother had been there that day. 10. He said that it was a pity I hadn’t come earlier. 11. The teacher told the pupils that there would be an interesting lecture at the school assembly hall the next day. She added that one of their teachers would speak about Charles Dickens. 12. Helen said that the year before she had spent her summer vacation in the Caucasus. 13. The man said that he had come to live in that town several years before. 14. Grandmother told us that she would be reading us a story until it was time to go to bed. 15. My brother said that he had read all about it in that day’s newspaper.

Упражнение 323

1. I told my grandmother to listen very carefully, when her turn came, to what the doctor told her. 2. The laboratory assistant told me that if I was in a hurry, we should only do the first experiment. 3. The writer told the correspondent that he would not start anything new until he had finished that novel. 4. The boy’s father told him that when he got a job, he would buy him a warm coat. 5. My mother told me that if I spilled the milk, there would not be any for the cat. 6. She told me that she would show me her new dress when I came to see her on Sunday. 7. Jane told Henry to bring Mary to their house if she arrived before seven. 8. The PT teacher told the pupils not to wait until he came and to begin playing volleyball as soon as they finished the exercises. 9. Mary told her mother to ask Robert, as soon as he appeared, where he had put the dictionary.

Упражнение 324

1. I shall go to see the doctor tomorrow. 2. I am ill. 3. I have fallen ill. 4. Tom did not come to school yesterday. 5. You may catch cold. 6. I have caught cold. 7. While crossing the English Channel we stayed on deck all the time. 8. I felt sick when crossing the Channel. 9. I am feeling bad today. 10. I have pain in my right side. 11. I have just been examined by a good doctor. 12. I shall not come to school until Monday. 13. I spent a month at a health resort. 14. My health has greatly improved since then.

Упражнение 325

1. I asked Nick where he was going. 2. I asked him how long he was going to stay there. 3. I wanted to know how long it would take him to get there. 4. He asked her where she usually spent her summer holidays. 5. Ann wondered when Mike had left London. 6. She asked Boris when he would be back home. 7. Boris asked them how he could get to the railway station. 8. Mary was interested what time Tom would come there the next day. 9. She asked me why I had not come there the day before. 10. She wanted to know what I should do the next day if I was not busy at my office. 11. Pete asked his friends when they were leaving St. Petersburg. 12. He asked them who they would see before they left there. 13. They asked him what time the train started. 14. I asked Mike what he would do after dinner. 15. I asked my uncle how long he had stayed in the Crimea. 16. Mother wanted to know who had brought that parcel. 17. Ada asked me where I had seen such trees. 18. I asked Becky what kind of book her friend had brought her.

Упражнение 326

1. He didn’t tell anybody where he was going. 2. Did you know where he had gone? 3. Did you know where he was? 4. I wanted to know when he was leaving school. 5. Nobody knew where he lived. 6. She asked them when he would come back. 7. He wanted to know where she had bought that hat. 8. I had no idea how much she had paid for it. 9. I forgot where I had put the book. 10. She wanted to know who had given me that nice kitten. 11. He asked me where he could buy an English-Russian dictionary. 12. He wondered how long it would take my brother to get to Madrid.

Упражнение 327

1. I asked Boris if his friend lived in London. 2. I asked the man whether he was living in a hotel. 3. Nick asked his friend if he would stay at the Hilton. 4. He asked me whether I often went to see my friends. 5. He asked me if I should see my friends before I left St. Petersburg. 6. Mike wondered if Jane would come to the railway station to see him off. 7. She wanted to know whether I had sent them a telegram. 8. She asked me if I had sent them a telegram the day before. 9. I asked Mike if he had packed his suitcase. 10. I asked Kate if somebody had met her at the station. 11. I asked her if she could give me their address. 12. I wanted to know if Tom had had breakfast. 13. I wondered if my sister would stay at home or go for a walk after dinner. 14. I asked my mother whether somebody had come to see me. 15. I asked my sister whether Nick would call for her on the way to school. 16. She asked the young man if he could call a taxi for her. 17. Mary asked Peter if he had shown his photo to Dick. 18. Oleg asked me if I should come there the next day. 19. He asked us if we had gone to the museum that morning.

Упражнение 328

1. I did not know if they had sold the picture. 2. I wondered if they knew something about it. 3. She asked me if Jack had given me his telephone number. 4. I was not sure if he was coming back that day. 5. She asked me if I had found the book. 6. The man asked if there were some more books there. 7. I wanted to know if she had gone shopping the day before. 8. He did not ask her whether she had bought the dictionary. 9. I doubted if she knew the name of the man. 10. I asked if Boris had seen the man that morning.

Упражнение 329

1. Kate wondered if Mike liked her dress. 2. Grandfather wanted to know what mark Mary had got at school. 3. My sister asked me whether I should take her to the theatre with me the next day. 4. Mother asked me if I had played with my friends the day before. 5. Kate’s mother wondered why Kate didn’t play with her friends. 6. My little sister asked me if I liked chocolates. 7. Mr. Brown asked Lena if she had seen her granny the day before. 8. The doctor asked Nick if he washed his face and hands every morning. 9. The teacher asked Mike if his father worked at a factory. 10. Mother asked us what we were doing there. 11. Father asked Nick if he had done his homework. 12. Tom asked Ann where her friends were.

Упражнение 330

1. Have they taken the sick man to hospital? 2. Do you have a headache? 3. When did you fall ill? 4. Have you taken your temperature? 5. Has the doctor given you any medicine? Are you feeling better now? 6. How long have you been in St. Petersburg? 7. Are you going to a health resort? 8. Is your father still in Moscow? 9. What sort of work does your father do?

Упражнение 331

1. Ann’s grandmother asked her if she liked her pies. 2. Tom’s mother told him to sit down at the table and do his homework. 3. John’s father was interested to know what they had done at school the day before. 4. Helen’s aunt asked her whether she would play the piano that day. 5. My uncle said that they would visit us the following week. 6. The man told Nick not to cross the street when the lights were red. 7. Mike told his father that he had taken a very good book from their library the day before. 8. Lena asked (invited) Jane to come to her house the next day. 9. Betsy’s mother asked her daughter where her books were.

Упражнение 332

1. My elder sister told me to lock the door when I left the house. 2. She asked Robert if he had received a telegram from his wife. 3. Mabel said that nothing would change her decision and she would leave for Cape Town that night. 4. The old woman asked her nephew not to smoke in the room. 5. The girl said that she was shivering with cold. 6. The boy said that he wanted to sit in the armchair. 7. The secretary told me that the delegation had arrived in St. Petersburg the day before. 8. She asked me to open the window. 9. He said that he would light a fire and make himself breakfast. 10. The mother told her little daughter not to run to the door when she heard the bell. 11. She asked me how long I was going to stay there. 12. Mary asked me if I should spend my vacation in Moscow.

Упражнение 333

1. Father told Jane to show him her exercise book. 2. Kate’s aunt asked the boys what game they were playing there. 3. Tom’s mother told him not to make noise. 4. Helen asked Pete if he had played chess with his father the day before. 5. Kate asked her grandmother to help her (to) cook the soup. 6. Mike told the teacher that his sister knew two foreign languages. 7. Tom told his sister that he had seen her friend at the library the day before. 8. The teacher asked the children what they had prepared for that day. 9. The teacher told the pupils not to open their books. 12. Mother told me that I should go to the cinema the next day.

Упражнение 334

1. Tom’s mother told him to go to bed. 2. Nellie told Pete that she had never seen his toys. 3. The teacher told Nick to give her his record book. 4. Ann asked Lena to look at her nice kitten. 5. Our grandmother said that we should go to the zoo the next day. 6. Mother told Pete not to forget to wash his hands. 7. Nick told his mother that he was doing his homework. 8. Mike told the teacher that he had learnt a long poem. 9. The man told the boys not to play in the street. 10. My mother wanted to know why I did not drink my tea. 11. Johnny told his mother that he had seen his friend at the stadium the day before. 12. My friend asked me when I had received that letter. 13. The boys asked Peter if he would play football with them.

Упражнение 335

1. Mike told Kate that he would buy some new stamps for her if she gave him that one. 2. Mary asked Boris if he would bring his sister to the party with him. 3. He asked me not to touch him. 4. My father said that he thought he would not go to the beach with us that day because he was very busy. 5. Tom told Ann that he was very thirsty and asked her to give him some lemonade. 6. Aunt Polly told Tom not to lie to her and added that she was tired of his lies. 7. My friend asked me if I was fond of going to the theatre. He wanted to know if I had seen some plays by Shakespeare. 8. Nellie asked me if I had seen «Hamlet» the night before. 9. I asked Nellie whether we should go to the theatre together. 10. Nellie was interested to know whether Mike liked Shakespeare. She wanted to know if he was going to the theatre that night.

Упражнение 336

1. Prince John asked Locksley why he was shouting. He wanted to know what his name was. 2. The teacher wanted to know who had read «Ivanhoe». He asked us whom it had been written by. 3. One of the pupils asked the teacher of literature what novels they would read the following year. 4. The Frenchman wanted to know if the river Volga was in Russia. 5. Ann asked the girls if they were playing volleyball. She added that she had not known that they liked it. 6. Peter told us not to touch those photographs and explained that they were still wet and we might spoil them. 7. Fred asked the boys if their friend often came there. He added that he wanted to speak to him. 8. My friend asked me how I had managed to solve that difficult problem in such a short time. 9. The teacher told us that we should write a paper the next day. 10. Kate told Nick that she had seen a new film the day before. Nick wondered whether she had liked it.

Упражнение 337

1. We asked a passerby whether he knew where the Browns lived. 2. Andrew told us that there were a lot of trains to his station on Sunday and added that we should have no problems getting to his country place. 3. He asked me if I often met his sister at the library. 4. Nick wanted to know if the teacher would return their exercise books that day. 5. The woman said that her nephew was a very capable young man. She added that he had just graduated from college, but he was already a very skilful specialist. 6. The doctor told me to sit still and not to move my head. 7. Vera told Helen that she wanted to know how her cousin liked working at that hospital. 8. The teacher told us not to forget to bring our exercise books the next day and explained that we were going to write a very important paper. 9. The girl wanted to know how she could get to the curcus. The man told her to take tram number five. 10. Mike told Kate that he was very sorry and added that he had forgotten to bring her dictionary. 11. The neighbour wondered when my mother went shopping.

Упражнение 338

Упражнение 339

1. The teacher told us that we should have to work hard the next day. 2. My girlfriend told me that she would not be able to go for a walk with me that day because she was very busy. 3. She asked me how long I was going to stay in the country. 4. He told me that he liked to go to the canteen during the break. 5. He wanted to know when I should go to the canteen. 6. John said that he had met them at the airport the day before. 7. He said that he would come to the party if he was free the next day. 8. She said that she would go to the cinema in the evening if she was not very tired. 9. My mother told me that it would be difficult for me to get up the next day if I did not go to bed at once. 10. Nina said that she liked music and added that she listened to it every evening before going to bed. 11. My aunt said that she would not be thirsty if she ate some grapes. 12. Mother told us not to go out before she returned. 13. My sister said that she would be neither hungry nor thirsty if she had a cup of tea with a sandwich. 14. Mary told Fred not to switch on TV and explained that she was working.

Упражнение 340

1. My aunt said that she would gladly go to the cinema with us because she had not seen that film and she wanted to see it very much. 2. The teacher asked the pupils which of them could answer his question. 3. She asked the doctor if he thought that simple food was better for children than rich food. 4. Vera wondered why their team had lost the game and added that it had always been very strong. 5. Tom wanted to know where Mary had put his book and added that he could not find it. 6. Fred said that he was very happy and explained that he had bought a very good bicycle. 7. The man asked the boys whom they were waiting for. 8. Mary said that she would not go to the party the next day because she did not feel well. 9. Walter said that they had seen a lot of places of interest when they were travelling around Europe the summer before. 10. Jane said that she supposed they would go to the theatre the next day. 11. Lena asked me not to take the books from her table and explained that she had specially prepared them for working at her report. 12. Nick’s grandfather told him not to be afraid and explained that that dog was very clever and (it) would not do him any harm.

Упражнение 341

1. He told me to come at nine o’clock and added that he would be free at that time and we should have a nice cuр of coffee. 2. Nina asked her friend what the professor had spoken about in his lecture. 3. He said that the man was one of the best speakers he had ever heard. 4. He said that he had not yet seen the film I was talking about. 5. He said that he had seldom gone to see his friend in May as he had been very busy. 6. She asked her brother whether he would manage to get tickets to the Philharmonic on Sunday. 7. My friend said that they had arrived in Kiev on Saturday and the next day they had gone to have a look around the city. 8. She asked if I had lived in St. Petersburg ten years before. 9. She asked me if I was going to leave St. Petersburg for the summer. 10. My friend told me that the discussion would still be going on when I returned. 11. He said that he was proud of his brother who had taken the first prize at the competition. 12. She wanted to know how long I had been living in St. Petersburg. 13. She said that he had just left. 14. He was interested to know when my parents would arrive in St. Petersburg. 15. She wanted to know if I had been present at the meeting the day before.

Упражнение 342

1. Will you be busy tomorrow? 2. Are you afraid of thunderstorm? 3. Have you ever walked in rainy weather? 4. I prefer sunny days. 5. Are you in a hurry? 6. Will you go to the country tomorrow? 7. What do you like to do on your days off? 8. May I speak to the headmistress? 9. Will you give me your book? 10. Will you come to the Philharmonic with me? — At what time are you planning to go? — It will take us long to get there. — Where shall we meet?

Упражнение 343

1. A friend of yours called on you half an hour ago. 2. I study at Moscow University. 3. My brother is playing chess with my grandfather. 4. It is very difficult to play this role. 5. Why are there so few people in the street? 6. Do you know where you live? 7. Don’t worry and go home quietly. 8. I shall sleep in the open air. 9. Are you going to leave St. Petersburg tomorrow? 10. I bought this watch yesterday. 11. I have just had a telephone call from home. 12. Leave the key at your sister’s, please. 13. I cannot understand the rule. 14. I bought a ticket yesterday.

Упражнение 344

1. I saw the film several months ago. 2. I haven’t seen it yet. 3. I want to make a radio set. 4. I have made a radio set. 5. I often go to see Bob. 6. I have seen Mary today. 7. I like Dickens’ novels very much. 8. I read «Dombey and Son» last year. 9. The pupils (You) will read the text tomorrow. 10. Buy some bread on your way home, please. 11. Don’t be late for dinner. 12. Have you «Gulliver’s Travels»? 13. Have you read «Robinson Crusoe» by Daniel Defoe? 14. Will you be at home at three o’clock? 15. What did you see at the museum? 16. Who is absent? 17. Who is ill?

Упражнение 346

1. Have your passports ready. 2. Pass up the gangway. 3. You will find your luggage on deck. 4. Will you go down to your cabin or stay up on deck? 5. I am a bad sailor and cannot stay on deck. 6. Take our luggage to cabin number eight. 7. Do you often go to England? 8. I don’t cross the English Channel very often for it is rough as a rule. 9. Do you know when the boat is due at Southampton? 10. Do you think it will take us long to get through the customs?

Упражнение 345

1. Are you going to your hometown for the holidays? 2. I couldn’t ring you up in time. 3. Wait for me, please. 4. Does anyone else know about my arrival? 5. When will you take your last examination? 6. Did you take part in the football match? 7. Where do you live? 8. I have joined a sports society. 9. I saw your brother yesterday. 10. Hurry up as there is little time left before the beginning of the meeting. 11. Has the rain stopped? 12. It is still raining. 13. I have found the book you are looking for. 14. I don’t like the main character of the book, but I cannot explain why. 15. What will you do if you don’t find the book you need?

Упражнение 347

1. Vera answered (Nina) that her favourite books were «Gulliver’s Travels» and «Robinson Crusoe» and added that now she was reading a novel by Walter Scott. 2. Nina said that the year before they had learnt some poems by Byron and Shelly and added that they were very beautiful. 3. Vera told Nina that she knew many poems by those great poets and added that she had also read some books about Byron and Shelley. 4. Nina said that that year they would read a play by Shakespeare in English.

Упражнение 348

1. My friend said, «All the pupils of our class like history lessons.» 1. My friend said that all the pupils of their class liked history lessons.
2. I said to him, «We like English lessons.» 2. I told him that we liked English lessons.
3. The teacher said, «Soon you will speak English well because you work much.» 3. The teacher said that soon we should speak English well because we worked much.
4. The teacher said, «I have already corrected your paper.» 4. The teacher said that he had already corrected our paper.
5. Kate said, «Father is in the room. He is reading.» 5. Kate said that Father was in the room and added that he was reading.
6. Mother said, «Don’t make noise! Grandfather is sleeping.» 6. Mother told us not to make noise because Grandfather was sleeping.
7. Ann said, «We found a lot of mushrooms in the forest.» 7. Ann said that they had found a lot of mushrooms in the forest.

Упражнение 349

1. Yesterday our teacher asked us, «Do you read much?» 1. Yesterday our teacher asked us if we read much.
2. When he saw «David Copperfield» in my hands, he asked, «Where did you take this book?» 2. When he saw «David Copperfield» in my hands, he asked where I had taken that book.
3. Then he asked, «Do you know anything about the author of this book?» 3. Then he asked if I knew something about the author of that book.
4. Mike asked me, «When will you go to buy books?» 4. Mike asked me when I should go to buy books.

Упражнение 350

1. Peter asked Ann if they had run a race the day before. Ann answered that they had and added that Tamara had been the first to come to the finish. 2. Tom asked his mother where his bag was. His mother said that she had put it on the chair near the door and told Tom (him) not to forget to put his record book into it. 3. The children asked their mother why they could not play there. Their mother said that their father was sleeping. She added that their father had worked very much that day and told the children to keep quiet. 4. Alec asked us why we helped her and added that she was lazy and could do everything herself. 5. Lena said that she did not want to go to the zoo and explained that she had been there the week before with her cousin and seen all the animals. 6. Nick asked his father to look at his stamps and wondered when his father would buy some new ones for him. 7. Tanya said that she could not do that exercise and added that it was too difficult. Her brother wanted to know why she had not asked her teacher to explain it. 8. The lighthouse keeper asked his assistant if he could see the lights in the distance. The assistant answered that he could and added that a ship was giving signals.

Три самых активных вспомогательных глагола в английском языке: to be, to do, to have. Полезно знать, как изменяются эти слова, чтобы употребление времен не составило труда.

Определенную трудность представляют неправильные глаголы – они образуют форму прошедшего времени (Past Simple) и причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) не стандартным прибавлением окончания -ed, а особым способом. Их нужно учить отдельно.

Английский язык – твой шаг к успеху. Начни сейчас. Самоучитель – Голицынский с ответами NJNJ.RU.

В помощь тем, кто занимается самостоятельно, предлагается полный сборник ключей, т.е. выполненных упражнений.

Ответы помогут проверить правильность выполнения упражнений, систематизировать и углубить знания школьной программы по английскому языку.

[баян]языки программирования если бы они были религией

Monday, December 15, 2008 If programming languages were religions. By amz at 14:52

C would be Judaism — it’s old and restrictive, but most of the world is familiar with its laws and respects them. The catch is, you can’t convert into it — you’re either into it from the start, or you will think that it’s insanity. Also, when things go wrong, many people are willing to blame the problems of the world on it.

Java would be Fundamentalist Christianity — it’s theoretically based on C, but it voids so many of the old laws that it doesn’t feel like the original at all. Instead, it adds its own set of rigid rules, which its followers believe to be far superior to the original. Not only are they certain that it’s the best language in the world, but they’re willing to burn those who disagree at the stake.

PHP would be Cafeteria Christianity — Fights with Java for the web market. It draws a few concepts from C and Java, but only those that it really likes. Maybe it’s not as coherent as other languages, but at least it leaves you with much more freedom and ostensibly keeps the core idea of the whole thing. Also, the whole concept of «goto hell» was abandoned.

C++ would be Islam — It takes C and not only keeps all its laws, but adds a very complex new set of laws on top of it. It’s so versatile that it can be used to be the foundation of anything, from great atrocities to beautiful works of art. Its followers are convinced that it is the ultimate universal language, and may be angered by those who disagree. Also, if you insult it or its founder, you’ll probably be threatened with death by more radical followers.

C# would be Mormonism — At first glance, it’s the same as Java, but at a closer look you realize that it’s controlled by a single corporation (which many Java followers believe to be evil), and that many theological concepts are quite different. You suspect that it’d probably be nice, if only all the followers of Java wouldn’t discriminate so much against you for following it.

Lisp would be Zen Buddhism — There is no syntax, there is no centralization of dogma, there are no deities to worship. The entire universe is there at your reach — if only you are enlightened enough to grasp it. Some say that it’s not a language at all; others say that it’s the only language that makes sense.

Haskell would be Taoism — It is so different from other languages that many people don’t understand how can anyone use it to produce anything useful. Its followers believe that it’s the true path to wisdom, but that wisdom is beyond the grasp of most mortals.

Erlang would be Hinduism — It’s another strange language that doesn’t look like it could be used for anything, but unlike most other modern languages, it’s built around the concept of multiple simultaneous deities.

Perl would be Voodoo — An incomprehensible series of arcane incantations that involve the blood of goats and permanently corrupt your soul. Often used when your boss requires you to do an urgent task at 21:00 on friday night.

Lua would be Wicca — A pantheistic language that can easily be adapted for different cultures and locations. Its code is very liberal, and allows for the use of techniques that might be described as magical by those used to more traditional languages. It has a strong connection to the moon.

Ruby would be Neo-Paganism — A mixture of different languages and ideas that was beaten together into something that might be identified as a language. Its adherents are growing fast, and although most people look at them suspiciously, they are mostly well-meaning people with no intention of harming anyone.

Python would be Humanism: It’s simple, unrestrictive, and all you need to follow it is common sense. Many of the followers claim to feel relieved from all the burden imposed by other languages, and that they have rediscovered the joy of programming. There are some who say that it is a form of pseudo-code.

COBOL would be Ancient Paganism — There was once a time when it ruled over a vast region and was important, but nowadays it’s almost dead, for the good of us all. Although many were scarred by the rituals demanded by its deities, there are some who insist on keeping it alive even today.

APL would be Scientology — There are many people who claim to follow it, but you’ve always suspected that it’s a huge and elaborate prank that got out of control.

LOLCODE would be Pastafarianism — An esoteric, Internet-born belief that nobody really takes seriously, despite all the efforts to develop and spread it.

Visual Basic would be Satanism — Except that you don’t REALLY need to sell your soul to be a Satanist.

Thanks to jfs and other people on #aegisub for the suggestions. Keep in mind, this list is a joke, and is not meant to offend anyone. Also, if you’re a Muslim, please don’t kill me. 😉

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